The town of Cromwell, located in Middlesex County, lies on the Connecticut River just north of Middletown. Originally part of the Mattabesset settlement, in 1651, the area became known as Middletown Upper Houses—being separated from Middletown by the Sebethe River. Settlers thrived in the area and, in 1851, incorporated, completing their separation from Middletown and forming the town of Cromwell. Named after Oliver Cromwell, an English military and political leader, the town today has two distinct historic districts, the Main Street Historic District and the Middletown Upper Houses Historic District. Both of these areas are on the National Register of Historic Places.
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